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16 Rules of Ramadan for Men and Women

16 Rules of Ramadan for Men and Women ~ Hi all readers! Ramadan will come soon. As we know, Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims. Usually, Muslims call it “Ramadan Mubarak” or “Ramadan Kareem”. In that month, all adult Muslims (Baligh) are required to fast for one month. But in some cases, there are several things that prevent them from fasting. Thus, there are some Ramadan rules that they should know. That’s why I wrote this article. So, you have to read it to the end.

Before I explain more about 16 Ramadan rules for men and women, there is one important point I want to make clear here, that during Ramadan Muslims are encouraged to perform Taraweeh prayer. The time to perform prayers is after the Isha prayer. There is no limit to the number of rakats in Taraweeh prayer. But it is usually done up to 8 rakat or 20 rakat.

In this article I will explain 16 rules of Ramadan for men and women. The point is, that there are 16 general rules that must be known by them in order for their fast to be a perfect fast.

One thing I want to explain about the 16 rules of Ramadan for men and women which I will explain now is that the 16 rules cover things they should do, things they shouldn’t do, and things they can do. they do. I will explain all of this based on the Quran, hadith, and the opinions of Islamic jurists on it.

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16 Rules of Ramadan

The 16 rules of Ramadan I mean are as follows:

1. You must know that Ramadan has come.

Readers all! Knowing that Ramadan has come is the earliest obligation for Muslims to make their fast a valid fast. What I mean by legal fasting is that the fast they do is the Ramadan fast which is required of all adult Muslims.

Actually, there are two ways we can know that Ramadan has come:

One; we can do that by looking at the star as a sign of the change of the month, from the month of Sha’ban to the month of Ramadan.

Two; we can do that by increasing the number of days in the month of Sha’ban to thirty days.

We can find an explanation of the guide to knowing that Ramadan has come in the following hadiths;

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ : أَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَكَرَ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ : الشَّهْرُ تِسْعٌ وَعِشْرُوْنَ لَيْلَةً

From Abdullah bin Umar radliyallahu anhuma, he said, “That the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam called the month of Ramadan and said, “One month there are twenty-nine nights.”

عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ , قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : أُحْصُوْا هِلَالَ شَعْبَانَ لِرَمَضَانَ

From Abu Hurairah radliyallâhu hu anhu, he said, “The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “Calculate the month of Sya’ban to determine the beginning of Ramadan.”

عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ , قَالَ : قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : صُوْمُوْا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ , وَأَفْطِرُوْا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ , فَإِنْ غُبِّيَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوْا عِدَّةَ شَعْبَانَ ثَلَاثِيْنَ . وَلَفْظُ مُسْلِمٍ : إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ الْهِلَالَ فَصُوْمُوْا , وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُوْهُ فَأَفْطِرُوْا , فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَصُوْمُوْا ثَلَاثِيْنَ يَوْمًا

From Abu Hurairah radliyallâhu hu anhu, he said, “The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “You must fast because you see that (month), you must eat because you see that. If you can’t see it, then perfect the month of Sya’an to thirty. “The editorial of the Muslim hadith,” If you have seen the moon, fast! If you have seen it, then eat! If you can’t see it, it will last up to thirty days.”

If we examine the three hadith above, then we will understand a number of things as follows;

One: The first hadith explains, that the number of days in the month of hijria is 29 days.

Two: The second hadith explains, that to determine the turn of the month in the hijria year is to look at the moon which is a change from one month to another. Likewise, also if we want to determine the beginning of the month of Ramadan and the end of Ramadan.

Three: The third hadith explains, that if we cannot see the changing signs of the moon due to cloudy weather, then we must perfect the number of months to 30 days.

Readers of all, after we understand the brief explanation above, then we know that the way to determine the beginning of the month and the end of the month in the hijria calendar is to look at the changing of the moon and perfect the number of days in one month to 30 days. But the most important way, which must be done first, is to look at the changing signs of the moon. If we have tried to do it but there are no results, then we may use a second method whose status is alternative.

2. You are an adult.

Adult is one of the conditions that requires a Muslim to perform several obligations in Islam, such as prayer, zakat, and fasting. We can find an explanation about it, or that if there are Muslims who are not yet adults (small children) are not obliged to perform obligations in Islam, including fasting, in the hadith below;

عَنْ عَلِيٍّ بْنِ أَبيْ طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ : عَنِ الْمَجْنُوْنِ الْمَغْلُوْبِ عَلَى عَقْلِهِ حَتَّى يَفِيْقَ , وَعَنِ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ , وَعَنِ الصَّبِيِّ حَتَّى يَحْتَلِمَ

From Ali ibn Abi Talib radiyallahu anhu from the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, “The pen was appointed from three people; from a madman whose wits are defeated until he is healed, from the person who sleeps until he wakes up, and from a child to an adult.”

3. Fasting in Ramadan starts from dawn until sunset.

We can find an explanation of that in the Quranic verse below:

أُحِلَّ لَكُمۡ لَيۡلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمۡۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٞ لَّكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لِبَاسٞ لَّهُنَّۗ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمۡ كُنتُمۡ تَخۡتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَعَفَا عَنكُمۡۖ فَٱلۡـَٰٔنَ بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبۡتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡۚ وَكُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلۡخَيۡطُ ٱلۡأَبۡيَضُ مِنَ ٱلۡخَيۡطِ ٱلۡأَسۡوَدِ مِنَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيۡلِۚ وَلَا تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمۡ عَٰكِفُونَ فِي ٱلۡمَسَٰجِدِۗ تِلۡكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقۡرَبُوهَاۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَّقُونَ ١٨٧

It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus, does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil). (Al-Baqarah [02]; 187).

4. Fasting in Ramadan must be done for 1 month (29 days or 30 days in Ramadan).

We can find an explanation about that in the following hadith;

عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ , قَالَ : قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : صُوْمُوْا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ , وَأَفْطِرُوْا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ , فَإِنْ غُبِّيَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوْا عِدَّةَ شَعْبَانَ ثَلَاثِيْنَ . وَلَفْظُ مُسْلِمٍ : إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ الْهِلَالَ فَصُوْمُوْا , وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُوْهُ فَأَفْطِرُوْا , فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَصُوْمُوْا ثَلَاثِيْنَ يَوْمًا

From Abu Hurairah radliyallahu anhu, he said, “The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “You must fast because you see that (month), you must eat because you see that. If you can’t see it, then perfect the month of Sya’an to thirty.” The editorial of Muslim’s hadith,” If you have seen the moon, fast! If you have seen it, then eat! If you can’t see it, it will last up to thirty days.”

5. You should not have sex while fasting in Ramadan.

We can find an explanation about the prohibition of sex during fasting in the Quranic verse as I explained in point 3.

6. You should not eat and drink while fasting in Ramadan.

The explanation regarding the prohibition of eating and drinking during fasting is the same as the explanation for point 3.

7. If you don’t fast for 1 day in Ramadan, then you have to fast for 1 day after Ramadan.

We can find an explanation about it in several hadiths as follows;

عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ : فِيْ الرَّجُلِ يَمْرَضُ فَلَا يَصُوْمُ حَتَّى يَبْدَأَ أَوَّلًا يَصُوْمُ حَتَّى يُدْرِكَهُ رَمَضَانُ آخَرَ . قَالَ :يَصُوْمُ الَّذِيْ حَضَرَهُ وَيَصُوْمُ الْآخَرَ وَيُطْعِمُ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ مِسْكِيْنًا

From Abu Hurairah radliyallahu anhu; about someone who is sick so he does not fast until another Ramadhan comes. He said, “He must fast during Ramdhan which has come and replace another fast (which he left behind) and every night he feeds one poor person (for every one day he has left).

عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ : مَنْ فَرَطَ فِيْ صِيَامِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ حَتَّي يُدْرِكَهُ رَمَضَانُ آخَرَ فَلْيَصُمْ هَذَا الَّذِي أَدْرَكَ , ثُمَّ لْيَصُمْ مَا فَاتَهُ , وَيُطْعِمُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِيْنًا

From Ibn Abbas radliyallahu anhu, “Whoever does not fast during the month of Ramadan until another month of Ramadan comes to him, then he must fast the month that has come and replace the fast he has missed and every day feed one poor person (for each one day he left). “

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا , قَالَ : جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , فَقَالَ : يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ , إِنَّ أُمِّيْ مَاتَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا صَوْمُ شَهْرٍ فَأَقْضِيْهِ عَنْهَا ؟ قَالَ : نَعَمْ , فَدَيْنُ اللهِ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُقْضَى

From Abdullah bin Abbas radliyallahu anhuma, he said, “Someone had come to the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, he then said, “O Messenger of Allah, my mother has actually died and she has the obligation to fast for one month. Do I have to fast to replace her?” The Prophet Muhammad replied,” Yes! Debt to Allah is more important to be paid.”

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ : قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : مَنْ مَاتَ وَعَلَيْهِ صِيَامٌ صَامَ عَنْهُ وَلِيُّهُ

From Aisha radliyallahu anha, she said, “The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever has died and he has the obligation to fast, his family must fast to replace his fast.”

8. If you are traveling during Ramadan, then you may not fast with certain conditions.

We can find an explanation of that in the hadith below;

But before I explain about it, I want explain one important thing, that there are five types of travel in the Islamic view;

One: A traveling must be done. That is, this traveling law is mandatory. So, someone has to do it if he is truly capable. Examples are going to study, going to the first Hajj, going to work, etc.

Two: Recommended traveling. That is, this travel law is better done. So, if someone is able to do it, then he is better off doing it. An example is doing Umrah, the second Hajj and so on, and doing everything whose status is also recommended.

Three: Traveling whose status is allowed. That is, someone may do it and may not. There is no law that forbids someone to do it or prohibits someone from doing it. An example is traveling for holidays and anything whose status is permissible.

Four: Traveling with a better status is not done. The meaning is that this traveling law is to recommend that it not be done. For example, if at this time on the highway there is an anarchic demonstration, if we leave the house we will be exposed to danger, so we better not leave the house.

Five: Traveling whose status is not permissible. The meaning is that this traveling law requires us not to do that. An example is traveling to steal, kill, get drunk, do damage, and so on.

After we observe the explanation above, the question now is, what travel allows a Muslim not to fast in the month of Ramadan?

One important thing you need to know here, that in Islamic teachings, traveling that allows a Muslim not to fast in the month of Ramadan is to travel to allow him to summarize the number of rakaat sahalat. In addition, the travel in question is not a prohibited trip. (fifth point).

9. If you are sick during Ramadan, then you may not fast under certain conditions.

We can find an explanation of the pain when fasting in the month of Ramadan in the verses of the Quran below;

أَيَّامٗا مَّعۡدُودَٰتٖۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوۡ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٖ فَعِدَّةٞ مِّنۡ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَۚ وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُۥ فِدۡيَةٞ طَعَامُ مِسۡكِينٖۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيۡرٗا فَهُوَ خَيۡرٞ لَّهُۥۚ وَأَن تَصُومُواْ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ ١٨٤ شَهۡرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ هُدٗى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَٰتٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَٱلۡفُرۡقَانِۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهۡرَ فَلۡيَصُمۡهُۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوۡ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٖ فَعِدَّةٞ مِّنۡ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَۗ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلۡيُسۡرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلۡعُسۡرَ وَلِتُكۡمِلُواْ ٱلۡعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَىٰكُمۡ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ ١٨٥

For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know [184] The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks [185]. (Al-Baqarah [2]; 184-185).

Previously I wanted to say, in general, there are two types of sick people;

First; sick people who can still be expected to recover.

For example, now we are sick. If we can still recover medically, then, if we have recovered, we must replace the fast we have left while we are sick. If if we are sick, we do not fast for 5 days, then after we recover, we must fast for 5 days.

There are three conditions for sick people who can still be expected to recover;

  1. A sick person who is still able to fast.

For example, now we are sick. Medical diagnosis decides that even though we are sick, we can still fast. That is, the fasting we do does not endanger our health. Thus, we must fast because fasting is not a barrier for us.

  1. A sick person who is unable to fast and if he continues to fast, then it does not endanger him.

For example, now we are sick. Medical diagnosis decided that even though we were sick, we could still fast. That is, fasting that we do does not endanger us. Thus, not fasting is better for us

  1. A sick person who is unable to fast and if he remains fasting, then it is dangerous for him.

For example, now we are sick. Medical diagnosis says that if we fast, our fast will endanger us. Thus, we must not fast. Allah Ta’ala said;

وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تُلۡقُواْ بِأَيۡدِيكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلتَّهۡلُكَةِ وَأَحۡسِنُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ ١٩٥

And spend in the way of Allah and cast not yourselves to perdition with your own hands, and do good (to others); surely Allah loves the doers of good. (Al-Baqarah [2]; 195).

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَأۡكُلُوٓاْ أَمۡوَٰلَكُم بَيۡنَكُم بِٱلۡبَٰطِلِ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً عَن تَرَاضٖ مِّنكُمۡۚ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمۡ رَحِيمٗا ٢٩

O you who believe! do not devour your property among yourselves falsely, except that it be trading by your mutual consent; and do not kill your people; surely Allah is Merciful to you. (An-Nisaa’ [4]; 29).

Second; sick people who cannot be expected to recover.

For example, now we are sick. Medical diagnosis decided that we could not recover. Thus, we are not obliged to fast. Allah Taala said;

لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتۡ وَعَلَيۡهَا مَا ٱكۡتَسَبَتۡۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذۡنَآ إِن نَّسِينَآ أَوۡ أَخۡطَأۡنَاۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحۡمِلۡ عَلَيۡنَآ إِصۡرٗا كَمَا حَمَلۡتَهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِنَاۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلۡنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِۦۖ وَٱعۡفُ عَنَّا وَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَٱرۡحَمۡنَآۚ أَنتَ مَوۡلَىٰنَا فَٱنصُرۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ ٢٨٦

Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability; for it is (the benefit of) what it has earned and upon it (the evil of) what it has wrought: Our Lord! do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake; Our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us, Our Lord do not impose upon us that which we have not the strength to bear; and pardon us and grant us protection and have mercy on us, Thou art our Patron, so help us against the unbelieving people. (Al-Baqarah [2]; 286).

فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ مَا ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ وَٱسۡمَعُواْ وَأَطِيعُواْ وَأَنفِقُواْ خَيۡرٗا لِّأَنفُسِكُمۡۗ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِهِۦ فَأُوْلَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ ١٦

Therefore, be careful of (your duty to) Allah as much as you can, and hear and obey and spend, it is better for your souls; and whoever is saved from the greediness of his soul, these it is that are the successful. (At-Taghaabun [64]; 16).

If we experience this condition, we must feed the poor instead in exchange for the fast he left behind. We are given the choice to do one of the two things below;

  1. We have to give the poor food ½ sha ‘or about 1½ Kg. The food we give must be suitable for consumption, at least like the food we eat when we are healthy. The number of poor people who are given food is as much as the amount of fasting that we leave behind.
  2. We may feed poor people with foods that are more delicious than what we eat. The point of this problem is that we must provide food that is suitable for consumption. The number of poor people given food is as much as the amount of fasting that we leave behind.

10. If you are fasting, then you may tasting food during Ramadan under certain conditions.

We can find an explanation about it in several opinions of Islamic legal experts as follows;

عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ ذَاقَ عَسَلًا وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ

From ‘Urwah bin Zubair radliyallahu anhu, that he had tasted honey even though he was fasting.

قَالَ اِبْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا : لَا بَأْسَ أَنْ يَذُوْقَ الْخَلَّ أَوْ الشَّيْئَ مَا يَدْخُلُ حَلَقَهُ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ

Ibn Abbas radliyallahu anhuma said, “It doesn’t matter if he tasted vinegar or something while not entering his throat even though he was fasting.”

عَنِ الْحَسَنِ أَنَّهُ كَانَ لَا يَرَى بَأْسًا أَنْ يَتَطَاعَمَ الصَّائِمُ الْعَسَلَ , وَالسَّمْنَ , وَنَحْوَهُ , ثُمَّ يُمِجُّهُ

From Hasan, he actually argued that people who were fasting could taste honey, butter, etc., then he gave it away.

قَالَ اِبْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا : لَا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَطْعَمَ الْقَدْرَ أَوِ الشَّيْئَ

Ibn Abbas radliyallahu anhum said, “It doesn’t matter if you (people who fast) taste a little food or something else.”

If we look at some of the historical data above, then of course we already understand a number of things as follows;

One: We may taste the taste of any object, especially food, even though we are fasting.

Two: We must be careful that the food we taste does not enter our throat because it will damage our fasting.

Three: After we taste the taste of food, then we must immediately throw it away.

11. If you are fasting, then you may pouring water on your head during Ramadan.

We can find an explanation of that in the hadith below;

عَنْ أَبِيْ بَكْرَةَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِالْعَرَجِ يَصُبُّ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ الْمَاءَ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ مِنَ الْعَطْشِ أَوْ مِنَ الْحَرِّ

From Abu Bakrah from several friends of the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, he said, “Indeed I have seen the Prophet sallallaâhu hu alaihi wa sallam in al-A’raj poured water on his head even though he was fasting to reduce thirst or to reduce heat.”

If we observe the hadith above, then we will know a number of things as follows;

One: Islam allows people who are fasting to relieve the burden of fasting on the condition that the method he uses does not damage fasting.

Two: Islam allows people who are fasting to pour water on their heads. Thus, entering a cold room, such as a room with AC, is also permitted.

In addition to the above hadith I found historical data that said, that al-Hasan once said, “A person who is fasting may rinse and cool his body.”

12. Junub does not break the fast.

There is one Quranic verse that should be noted about Junub in Ramadan;

أُحِلَّ لَكُمۡ لَيۡلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمۡۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٞ لَّكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لِبَاسٞ لَّهُنَّۗ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمۡ كُنتُمۡ تَخۡتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَعَفَا عَنكُمۡۖ فَٱلۡـَٰٔنَ بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبۡتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡۚ وَكُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلۡخَيۡطُ ٱلۡأَبۡيَضُ مِنَ ٱلۡخَيۡطِ ٱلۡأَسۡوَدِ مِنَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيۡلِۚ وَلَا تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمۡ عَٰكِفُونَ فِي ٱلۡمَسَٰجِدِۗ تِلۡكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقۡرَبُوهَاۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَّقُونَ ١٨٧

It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset. And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them. Thus, does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous. (Al-Baqarah [2]; 187).

If we pay close attention to the verses of the Quran above, surely, we already know that Janabah cannot break fasting. Thus, if you are experiencing Janabah in the morning, afternoon, or evening because you have dreamed of having sex, or if at night you have had sex with your wife, and you have not yet taken a Janabah bath, then you must fast until you hear Adhan for the Maghrib prayer. Remember! Janabah cannot break fasting in the month of Ramadan.

13. There are differences of opinion about masturbation during Ramadan.

We can find an explanation of that in several opinions of Islamic legal experts as follows:

قَالَ اِبْنُ قُدَامَة فِيْ الْمُغْنِي : لَوْ اِسْتَمْنَى فَقَدْ فَعَلَ مُحَرَّمًا , وَلَا يَفْسُدُ صَوْمُهُ بِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَنْزِلَ . فَإِنْ أَنْزَلَ فَسَدَ صَوْمُهُ , لِأَنَّهُ فِيْ مَعْنَى الْقُبْلَةِ فِيْ إِثَارَةِ الشَّهْوَةِ

Ibn Qudamah in al-Mughni’s book said, “If he masturbates, then he has done something that is forbidden (haram), but his fast is not broken unless his sperm comes out. If the sperm comes out then the fast is broken, because that includes actions that can arouse libido.”

قَالَ هَيْئَةُ الْعُلَمَاءِ الْكُوَيْتِيَّةِ فِيْ الْمَوْسُوْعَةِ الْفِقْهِيَّةِ الْكُوَيْتِيَّةِ : الْإِسْتِمْنَاءُ بِالْيَدِ يُبْطِلُ الصَّوْمَ عِنْدَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ وَالشَّافِعِيَّةِ وَالْحَنَابِلَةِ , وَعَامَةُ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ عَلَى ذَالِكَ , ِلأَنَّ الْإِيْلَاجَ مِنْ غَيْرِ إِنْزَالٍ مُفْطِرٌ . فَالْإِنْزَالُ بِشَهْوَةٍ أَوْلَى . وَقَالَ أَبُوْ بَكْرٍ بْنِ الْإِسْكَافِ وَأَبُوْ الْقَاسِمِ مِنَ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ : لَا يَبْطُلُ صَوْمُهُ لِعَدَمِ الْجِمَاعِ صُوْرَةً وَمَعْنًى

The Muslim scholar’s association in Kuwait said in the book “Encyclopedia of Islamic Law in Kuwait”, “Masturbation done by hand can damage fasting. That is the opinion of Islamic legal experts from the Malikiyah, Syafiiyah, and Hanabilah sects. The majority of Hanafinyah Islamic legal experts also think so, because having sex even though sperm does not come out can damage the fast. Abu Bakr bin Iskaf and Abu Qasim of the Hanafiyah sect said, “Fasting a person who masturbates is not damaged because he does not have sex, either in a certain way or in meaning.”

There are some important things we can conclude about the opinions above;

First; Masturbation by someone who is fasting can damage his fast if the sperm comes out because of it. In other words, if you masturbate and your sperm doesn’t come out, then your fast is not broken. This is the opinion of Ibn Qudamah

Second; The majority of Islamic law experts agree, that a person who is fasting should not masturbate. But Abu Bakr ibn Iskaf and Abu Qasim said that someone who was foaming was allowed to do that, because it was not sex.

14. If you are pregnant during Ramadan, then you may not fast under certain conditions.

We can find an explanation of this in the hadith below;

عَنْ أَنَسٍ بْنِ مَالِكٍ الْكَعْبِيِّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَضَعَ عَنِ الْمُسَافِرَ شَطْرَ الصَّلَاةِ , وَعَنِ الْمُسَافِرِ وَالْحَامِلِ وَالْمُرْضِعِ الصَّوْمَ أَوِ الصَّيَامَ

From Anas bin Malik al-Ka’biy radliyallahu anhu from the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, he said, “Indeed Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla revoked half of the prayers from people who traveled, and He revoked the obligation of fasting from people who traveled, women pregnant, and breastfeeding women.

All readers! If we look at the hadith above, the answer to the two questions above is;

One: That Islam does not require Muslim women who are pregnant to fast.

Two: That Muslim women who are pregnant are not required to fast.

But there is an important point that I want to convey here, that there is some more detailed information that we must know about our discussion this time;

One: If a Muslim woman who is pregnant or breastfeeding is concerned about the health and safety of her baby, then she may not fast. Instead, after Ramadan, and she has been able to fast and not worry about the safety of herself and her baby, then he must fast. If she does not fast for 5 days in Ramadan, then she must fast for 5 days too. What we need to remember is that he is only obliged to replace the fast that she left behind, she is not obliged to feed poor people.

Two: If a Muslim woman is pregnant or is worried about the health and safety of herself and her baby, then she may not fast. Instead, she must feed to replace the fast that she left behind and she is not obliged to feed poor people. The result of this second case is the same as the result of the first case.

Three: If a Muslim woman who is pregnant or breastfeeding is only concerned about herself, then her status is the same as the status of the sick person. Meaning; if a medical diagnosis stipulates that fasting that she can do can harm her while she cannot bear the danger, she cannot fast; if a medical diagnosis stipulates that fasting she does will not affect her, then she must fast; if a medical diagnosis determines that the fast he will do can have an effect on her and she is able to overcome that influence, then she is better not to fast.

15. If you are breastfeeding, then you may not fast under certain conditions.

The explanation about breastfeeding in Ramadan is the same as the explanation about getting pregnant in the month of Ramadan that I explained earlier.

16. If you are menstruating during Ramadan, then you may not fast.

We can find an explanation of that in the hadith below:

عَنْ أَبِيْ سَعِيْدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَلَمْ تَصُمْ

From Abu Sa’id al-Khudri radliyallahu anhu of the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, he said, “Isn’t it if she is menstruating so she is not praying and not fasting.”

The hadith below is a history of Aisyah bint Abu Bakr radliyallaahi anha. She was one of the wives of the Prophet Muhammad.

كُنَّا نَحِيْضُ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَنُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّوْمِ وَلَا نُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّلَاةِ

We were then ordered to change fasting and we were not ordered to replace prayer (salat).

If we observe the two hadiths above, we will understand a number of things as follows;

One: Muslim women who are menstruating or parturition may not fast.

Two: Muslim women who do not fast because of menstruation or childbirth must replace fasting that has been abandoned.

Readers all! That’s a brief explanation of the 16 rules of Ramadan for men and women. Do you guys understand? If you have any questions, please ask!

I think that’s all for this article. Hope it is useful! Amen!

See you again in the next article!

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