Important Understanding About Prayer in Islam ~ Hi all readers! In this article, I will explain some important things related to prayer that we must know. Yup! Prayer is one of the most important obligations for Muslims. There are many things that must be understood by a Muslim about it. I will explain the following:
- The command to pray in Quran and Hadith.
- Types of prayers.
A. The Command to Pray in Quran and Hadith
In Quran and hadith there are many commands and information that explain about the importance of prayer. If a Muslim who fulfills the requirements to pray does not do so, he is sure to sin. Let’s look at the order!
Commands in Quran
We can find the command to pray in several verses of Quran below;
وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱرۡكَعُواْ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰكِعِينَ ٤٣
And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and bow down with those who bow down. (Al-Baqarah ; 43).
حَٰفِظُواْ عَلَى ٱلصَّلَوَٰتِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱلۡوُسۡطَىٰ وَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ قَٰنِتِينَ ٢٣٨
Attend constantly to prayers and to the middle prayer and stand up truly obedient to Allah. (Al-Baqarah ; 238).
ٱتۡلُ مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيۡكَ مِنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۖ إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ تَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِۗ وَلَذِكۡرُ ٱللَّهِ أَكۡبَرُۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَصۡنَعُونَ ٤٥
Recite that which has been revealed to you of the Book and keep up prayer; surely prayer keeps (one) away from indecency and evil, and certainly the remembrance of Allah is the greatest, and Allah knows what you do. (Al-‘Ankabuut ; 45).
إِنَّنِيٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۠ فَٱعۡبُدۡنِي وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِذِكۡرِيٓ ١٤
Surely, I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance. (Ta Haa ; 14).
Commands in Hadith
The commands in hadith can be found in several hadiths below;
قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : فَأُمِرْتُ بَخَمْسِ صَلَوَاتٍ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ . رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ
The Prophet (Muhammad) sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “I was ordered to pray five times every day.” The hadith is narrated by al-Bukhari.
قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : إِذَا بَلَغَ الْغُلَامُ سَبْعَ سِنِيْنَ أُمِرَ بِالصَّلَاةِ , فَإِذَا بَلَغَ عَشْرًا ضُرِبَ عَلَيْهَا . رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ
The Prophet (Muhammad) sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “If a child is seven years old, then he must be ordered to pray. If he is ten years old (and he does not want to pray), then he must be beaten.” The hadith is narrated by Ahmad.
قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ صَلَاتُهُ . فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ فَقْدْ أَفْلَحَ وَأَنْجَحَ , وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَقَدْ خَابَ وَخَسِرَ
Allah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Verily the first servant’s count is counted on the Day of Judgment is his prayer. If the prayer is good, then he has been lucky and successful. But if it’s broken, then he has failed and lost.”
Important Points Related to Some Verses of Quran and Hadiths
There are several important things related to some verses of Quran and some of hadith above;
- The command to pray is in Quran and hadith.
- Prayer that are done well can prevent people from doing them from bad deeds (Al-‘Ankabut ; 45).
- The biggest purpose of prayer is to remember Allah (Ta Haa ; 14).
- Muslims must pray five times every day (Shubuh, Dhuhur, Asr, Maghrib, Isha’), except for people who have obstacles justified by Islam not to do so.
- A child who is seven years old must be taught to pray. Remember! He must always be ordered to pray at that age. If he doesn’t want to do it at the age of seven to nine years, then his parents can’t beat him. But if he is ten years old and he does not want to pray, he must be beaten. The punch in question is a blow to educate and not be on the face.
- Prayer is the first act that will count on the Day of Judgment. If someone’s prayer is good, then he will be safe.
Types of prayers
Now I will explain about the various types of prayers. You must know that in Islam there are five types of prayer;
- Fardhu ‘ain prayers.
- Fardhu kifayah prayers.
- Sunnah prayers.
- Makruh prayers.
- Haram prayers.
An explanation of the five types of prayer is as below;
Fardhu ‘Ain Prayers
What is meant by fardhu ‘ain prayers, is a prayer that must be performed by every Muslim. Basically, every Muslim must do that. If he doesn’t do that, then he sins. But we must pay attention to the type and context.
Fardhu ‘ain prayers have five kinds;
- Mandatory prayers must be performed by Muslim when he is not traveling.
- Mandatory prayers must be performed by Muslim when he is traveling.
- Prayers to replace mandatory prayers that have been left behind.
- Prayers are performed to combine two prayers at once (jamak prayer).
- Friday prayer. This prayer is for men.
You need to know that what is meant by obligatory prayer must be done by a Muslim when he is traveling or not (first point and second point) are Shubuh, Dhuhur, Asr, Maghrib, and Isha’. Basically, all Muslims who have fulfilled the conditions of prayer must do it all, unless he has reasons that can be justified by Islam.
In some conditions, the five prayers can be summarized. Dhuhr and Asr can be done at one time (at dhuhur prayer time or at Asr prayer time), Maghrib and Isha’ can be done at one time (at Maghrib prayer time or at Isha prayer time), but that cannot be done during the Shubuh prayer. In Islamic teachings, such prayer is called jamak prayer (fourth point).
As for what is meant by prayer which is done to replace the obligatory prayer that has been abandoned is, is a prayer that is indeed done to replace the prayer that is left behind. For example, this morning I did not perform Shubuh prayer because I woke up when the sun had risen. As a consequence, I have to replace the Shubuh prayer that I left behind. In Islamic teachings, such prayer is called qadla’ prayer (third point).
What is meant by Friday prayer (fifth point) is prayer that have two rakats performed by Muslim men instead of dhuhur prayer. The law to do this prayer is mandatory.
Fardhu Kifayah Prayers
As for what is meant by prayer, the status of fardlu kifayah is enough prayer to be performed by one person. That is, if there is already one person who does that, the other Muslims are not obliged to do so. There is one prayer whose status is fardlu kifayah; prayer janazah (janazah prayer).
Sunnah prayers (suggestion)
As for sunnah prayers is a prayer that is better done than not done. People who do it get rewarded and people who don’t do it don’t get sin. There are many types of prayer whose status is recommended; qabliyah prayers, ba’diyah prayes, honoring mosque prayers, two ‘Ids prayers), prayer due to solar eclipse, prayer due to a lunar eclipse, midnight prayer (tahajud prayer), dhuhah prayer, tasbih prayer, repentance prayer, prayer to ask for rain (istisqaa’), prayer for fear (khauf prayer ), prayer for being very afraid (syiddatu al-Khauf), and so on.
What is meant by prayer whose status is makruh is that prayer should not be carried out under certain conditions, such as in hunger condition, holding urine, holding back defecation, and so forth. That is because such conditions can damage a person’s concentration when he is praying. If he prays in such conditions, his prayers are still valid, not broken, but it is better that he does not do so under these conditions. I have explained many explanations about that in a number of previous articles.
Haram Prayers (illegitimate)
As for what is meant by prayer which is haram (illegitimate) is a prayer whose status is a sunnah (suggestion) that is carried out at certain times, times that should not be used for prayer, such as prayer after Shubuh prayer until sunrise, prayer when the sun is right above the head, prayer after Asr prayer until sunset, prayer when the imam is in the sermon during the Friday prayer time except prayer to honor the mosque. But prayers whose status is illegitimate are permissible if conditions require someone to do so.
All Readers! That is a brief explanation of some important understanding about prayer in Islam. May be useful!
See you in the next article!