by

Understanding Obligations in Prayer (Salat)

Shariah Center: Understanding the Obligations in Prayer (Salat) ~ Hi all readers! In this article I will explain the obligations in prayer. You need to know that what is meant by obligations in prayer is things that must be done when someone is praying. If he doesn’t do that, then his prayer is broken and he must repeat his prayer.

There are fifteen things a person must do when he is praying;

One; Intention.

Two; Takbir Ihram.

Three; Doing takbir together with intention.

Four; Stand up.

Read;

Understanding Types of Prayers (Salat) in Islam

Heart Busy with Other Affairs; Does It Damage Prayer (Salat)?

Five; Reading the surah al-Fatihah and the verses of the Qur’an.

Six; Rukuk.

Seven; I’tidal.

Eight; Prostration (sujud).

Nine; Sitting between two prostrations.

Ten; Tumakninah (silent for a while in prostration).

Eleven; Final Tasyahud.

Twelve; Reading prayer for the Prophet Muhammad.

Thirteen; First greeting.

Fourteen; Sit the last third.

Fifteen; Orderly.

Do you understand? Not yet? Do not worry! I will explain what I consider necessary to explain.

One; Intention.

In Islam intention is the first factor that determines the status of all things, including prayer. In prayer, intention is something that explains whether the prayer performed by someone is Shubuh or Dhuhur prayer and so on. There are special ways to express the intention to pray. Note the information below;

The niyyah of Fajr prayer alone;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الصُّبْحِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Shubuh prayer which is obligatory, as many as two rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If the prayer will be done with another person and you will become an imam, then the intention is as follows;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الصُّبْحِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Shubuh prayer which is obligatory, as many as two rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, become an imam, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If you become a makmum, then the intention is like this;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الصُّبْحِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً مَأْمُوْمًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Shubuh prayer which is obligatory, as many as two rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, and become a mummum, because Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

The niyyah of Dhuhur prayer alone;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الظُّهْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Dhuhr prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakaat rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If the prayer will be done with another person and you will become an imam, then the intention is as follows;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الظُّهْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Dhuhr prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I am doing now, becoming an imam, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If you become a makmum, then the intention is like this;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الظُّهْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً مَأْمُوْمًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Dhuhr prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I am doing now, and becoming Makmum, because Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

The niyyah of Asr prayer alone;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ العَصْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Asr prayer, which is obligatory, as many as four rak’ahs of rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If the prayer will be done with another person and you will become an imam, then the intention is as follows;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ العَصْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Asr prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing the qiblah, I am doing now, becoming am imam, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If you become a makmum, then the intention is like this;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ العَصْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً مَأْمُوْمًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do the Asr prayer, which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, and become a mummum, because Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

The niyyah of Maghrib prayer alone;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ المَغْرِبِ ثَلَاثَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Maghrib prayer which is obligatory, as many as three rakaat rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, because Allah Ta’ala Allah is the Greatest.

If the prayer will be done with another person and you will become an imam, then the intention is as follows;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ المَغْرِبِ ثَلَاثَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Maghrib prayer which is obligatory, as many as three rakats, by facing qiblah, I am doing now, becoming an imam, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If you become a makmum, then the intention is like this;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ المَغْرِبِ ثَلَاثَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً مَأْمُوْمًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Maghrib prayer which is obligatory, as many as three rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, and become a mummum, because Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

The niyyah of Isha prayer alone;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الْعِشَاءِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Isha prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If the prayer will be done with another person and you will become an imam, then the intention is as follows;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الْعِشَاءِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً إِمَامًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Isha prayer which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I am doing now, becoming an imam, because of Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

If you become a makmum, then the intention is like this;

أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الْعِشَاءِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً مَأْمُوْمًا لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى اللهُ أَكْبَرُ

I intend to do Isha prayer ‘which is obligatory, as many as four rakats, by facing qiblah, I do now, and become a makmum, because Allah Ta’ala. Allah is the Greatest.

That is the variety of intentions for various types of prayers.

Two; Takbir Ihram.

The second obligation that must be done by someone who prays is takbir ihram. What is meant by takbir ihram is to pronounce the sentence takbir by raising both hands to the front of the chest. But some say to the side to the two ears. The takbir sentence is; اللهُ أَكْبَرُ (Allah is great).

Three; Doing takbir together with intention.

Four; Stand up.

People who are able to stand must stand up. If he can’t, then he has to sit down. If he is unable to sit, he must lie on his side. If he is unable to lie on his side, he must pray with a gesture.

Five; reading the surah al-Fatihah and the verse of the Qur’an

I think we all already know what Surah al-Fatihah is all about. I will not explain that again. The verses of the Qur’an which must be read are at least one verse.

Six to fourteen; (see the list above!)

This sixth to fourteenth obligation is like the movement we usually do in prayer. Here I will only explain, that what is meant by Thuma’nina is to rest for a while before making a move again and before reading the prayer we must read in it.

Prayer in prostration;

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ

The Most Holy is my Lord, the Highest and all praise be to Him.

Prayer between two prostrations;

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِيْ وَارْحَمْنِيْ وَارْزُقْنِيْ وَاهْدِنِيْ وَعَافِنِيْ وَاعْفُ عَنِّيْ

O Allah, forgive me, bless me, give me rizki, give me instructions, heal me, and forgive me.

Prayer after bowing (rukuk);

سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدَ مِلُءُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمِلْءَ الْأَرْضِ وَمِلْءُ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ بَعْدُ

Allah hears those who praise Him. O my Lord, praise be to you, as much as all the heavens, as much as the earth, and as much as anything You will after.

Prayer in prostrations (sujud);

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ

Most holy is my Lord and all praise be to Him.

Fifteen; orderly. The point is, all that must be done in an orderly manner, from the beginning to the end.

All readers! That is a brief explanation of obligations in prayer (Salat). May be useful! Amen!

See you again in the next article!

Reference;

Zakaria al-Ansari, Tuhfatul ath-Thullab bi Syarhi Tahriiri Tanqiihi al-Lubab, al-Haramain Publishing, Indonesia, p. 20-21, and a little extra from me.

Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *