The Kinds of Ath-Thahaarah (Ablution or Purifying) ~ In the previous article we have discussed ath-Thahaarah and its legal status in Islamic teachings. In this article, I will invite you all to know the kinds of ath-Thaharaah (ablution or purifying). As a Muslim, he must have a good understanding of this. That’s because in the teachings of Islam there are some things that will disrupt the validity of some rituals and they can’t be eliminated in the usual way. There are times when we will discuss it, Allah willing.
The Types of Ath-Thahaarah
In the literature of Islamic law, ath-Thahaarah is divided into two types;
One; Ath-Thahaarah (ablution or purifying) from al-Khabas.
Two; Ath-Thahaarah (ablution or purifying) from al-Hadas.
The meaning of the word al-Khabatas is something dirty and unclean in the view of Islamic law such as urine, blood, human feces, and so forth. Something in the category of al-Khabats is something from the outside that can stick to clothes, bodies, and so forth. While al-Hadas is a trait inherent in a person. In short, the form of al-Hadats is not visible because it does not matter as well as al-Khabats.
The brief description in the above paragraph can be clarified again by understanding the phrase, “In the morning, upon awakening, Muhammad urinates in the bathroom.” In the example of that sentence, the category of al-Khabas is urine because of that is something dirty and unclean in the view of Islamic law. While al-Hadats is a trait inherent in Muhammad’s self because he has urinated.
By looking at the above explanation we can conclude that what is meant by ath-Thahaarah (clean or holy) of khabats is clean and sacred body, clothing, or other equipment used to perform worship, such as prayer, reciting al-Qur’an , pilgrimage, and so on, from dirty and unclean objects such as urine, blood, human feces, and others, which fall into the category of al-Khabats. How to clean or purify it by using clean and sacred water until the objects that fall into the category of al-Khabats, which is dirty and unclean is lost its shape, smell, and color.
The meaning of ath-Thahaarah (ablution or purifying) of al-Hadast is the loss of the inherent nature of a person, which in that nature can prevent a person from performing worship such as prayer, reciting the Qur’an, pilgrimage to mecca (doing hajj), etc. How to clean the properties of al-Hadas this can be done with ablution (wudu), Tayamum, or bathing with certain procedures that have been established in Islamic teachings.
But that readers need to know, that al-Hadats is subdivided into two kinds. The first is the small al-Hadats. The second is the great al-Hadats. Both of these types, although both fall into the category of al-Hadats, but how to clean or purify them differently. This difference of cleansing or sanctification arises because the notion of the two is also different.
What is meant by Hadas is the inherent nature of a person, which prevents him from performing worship, but can be cleansed, removed, or purified with wudu or Tayamum. For example, people who urinate or defecate. He is a person who is exposed to little Hadas. If he wants to clean it (Hadats), then he simply does wudu or tayammum.
Whereas the great al-Hadats are the properties of a person, which prevent him from performing worship, but can only be cleansed, eliminated, or purified by bathing in certain ways which have been established in the teachings of Islam, can’t be only with wudu or Tayamum.
For example, women who in the menstrual period. He is a person who is exposed to the great Hadas. If the period of his menstruation is complete, then he must bathe in the ordinances that have been determined in the teachings of Islam. Another example is a married couple who finished having sex. In the teachings of Islam, they are exposed to great Hadas, so they must bathe in the ordinances prescribed in the teachings of Islam.
I think the brief explanation of the various kinds of ath-Thahaarah and the above meanings can be understood by the readers as well. But to gain a deep understanding we will need a lot of time, because he over me also alludes to the term wudu, Tayamum, bathe with the ordinances set in the teachings of Islam. Also, about objects that can prevent a person from worship, such as urine, human feces, menstrual blood, and so forth. If conditions permit, understanding of all that I will convey in the next article, Allah willing, because it will be more flexible if described one by one, or in their place.
I think that’s enough for this article about the kinds of ath-Thahaarah (ablution or purifying). See you again in the next article!
We can find the discussion above in, Abdurrahman al-Jaziri, al-Fiqh ‘ala al-Madzaahib al-Arba’ah, vol. 1, p. 8- 9. and Wahbah bin Mushthafah az-Zuhaili, al-Fiqh al-Islaami wa Adillatuhu, vol. 1, p. 149-150, with some modifications and explanations.