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The Definition of An-Najaasah (Unclean); A Best Explanation

Islamic Rule Studies: The Definition of An-Najaasah (Unclean) ~ Hi readers! In this article I will explain about an-Najaasah (unclean) and its types in general. All Muslims must know very well about it because it’s something that can prevent him from performing some obligatory rituals in Islam. I think without possessing this unclean knowledge a Muslim would find it difficult to know whether he was qualified to perform the obligatory rituals in his religion, which required him to be in pure condition.

In the teachings of Islam, unclean (النجاسة an-Najasah) is the opposite of holiness (ath-thahaarah). Unclean is a term used to refer to some objects that are considered dirty in Islamic teachings, which can prevent a person from performing some religious rituals such as prayer, hajj (doing hajj), reciting the Qur’an and so on. Broadly speaking, the unclean species are of two kinds;

First; unclean by essential (النجاسة الحقيقية an-Najaasah al-Haqiiqiyyah).

What is meant by unclean by essential (النجاسة الحقيقية an-Najaasah al-Haqiiqiyyah) are dirty things that can obstruct the validity of prayer, such as blood, urine, human feces, and so forth.

Read;

Terms of Doing Ath-Thahaarah

Ath-Thaharah (Ablution or Purifying) in Islam

This kind of unclean also has several more types; some are considered heavy (مغلظة mughalladhah) and some are considered mild (مخففة muhkaffafah); there is a solid shape (جامدة jaamidah) and there is a liquid (مائعة maai’ah); there are visible (مرئية mar’iyyah) and some are invisible (غير مرئية ghairu mar’iyyah). The discussion of this I will convey in the next article, insha Allah.

This type of unclean usually sticks to the body, clothing, and place of prayer. We must eliminate it when we are hendal perpetrators of religious rituals that oblige us in pure circumstances.

Second; unclean by condition (النجاسة الحكمية an-Najaasah al-Hukmiyyah).

What is meant by unclean by condition (النجاسة الحكمية an-Najaasah al-Hukmiyyah) is a condition that is legally Islamic is considered to prevent a person from performing religious rituals. This type of unclean can only be removed by ablution (wudu) or bathing in certain ways that have been set in the teachings of Islam.

Example; when we finished pissing. This urine enters into the category of unclean by essential (النجاسة الحقيقية an-Najaasah al-Haqiiqiyyah), while our condition after urine is unclean by condition (النجاسة الحكمية an-Najaasah al-Hukmiyyah). After we piss, as long as we have not purified ourselves by wudlu (doing wudlu), or tayammum if we don’t find water, then we should not perform religious rituals like praying, reading al-Qurán, and so forth.

Another example; when couples finish having sex, or when someone has dreamed of having sex until his sperm is out, so long as they have not purified themselves by taking a bath (with certain ordinances set in Islamic teachings), or tayammum if not found water, then they should not perform religious rituals such as prayer, reading Qur’ad, and so forth.

The Unclean Types Agreed and Disagreed by Islamic Scholars

After briefly discussing the kind of unclean by essential (النجاسة الحقيقية an-Najaasah al-Haqiiqiyyah) and unclean by condition (النجاسة الحكمية an-Najaasah al-Hukmiyyah), I will now invite the reader to know the unclean species agreed upon and not. Knowledge of it is very important, because with it we can know which is unclean exactly and what is uncertain status.

The Unclean Types That Agreed by Islamic Scholars

One; pig.

Pig are animal that define as unclean animal in Islam. All members of the body of pig, feathers, flesh, bones, skin, etc., are unclean. A person is not allowed to eat his flesh despite being slaughtered by the ordinance of slaughtered by the religion of Islam. Allah said;

حُرِّمَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡمَيۡتَةُ وَٱلدَّمُ وَلَحۡمُ ٱلۡخِنزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦ وَٱلۡمُنۡخَنِقَةُ وَٱلۡمَوۡقُوذَةُ وَٱلۡمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَٱلنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَآ أَكَلَ ٱلسَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيۡتُمۡ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى ٱلنُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسۡتَقۡسِمُواْ بِٱلۡأَزۡلَٰمِۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ فِسۡقٌۗ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ يَئِسَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن دِينِكُمۡ فَلَا تَخۡشَوۡهُمۡ وَٱخۡشَوۡنِۚ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَكۡمَلۡتُ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ وَأَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡإِسۡلَٰمَ دِينٗاۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ فِي مَخۡمَصَةٍ غَيۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٖ لِّإِثۡمٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ ٣

Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Al-Maa’idah [5]; 3).

Prophet Muhammad shallallahu alaihi wa sallam said;

مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيْرِ فَكَأَنَّمَا صَبَغَ يَدَهُ فِيْ لَحْمِ خِنْزِيْرٍ وَدَمِهِ

Whoever plays the dice then as if he put his hand into the pork and its blood. (The hadith is narrated by Muslim, 4194, Abu Daud, 4288, Ibnu Majah, 3753, Ahmad, 21901, 21947, 21978, 22057.).

Two; blood.

In Islamic teachings the blood is an unclean thing, be it human blood or animal blood, except the blood of martyrs and the blood of animals that can live in the water, like fish.

Three; human urine (other than the urine of a young child still suckling), vomit coming out of the stomach through the mouth, and dirt coming out of the anus.

Four; everything that can make someone drunk (khamr).

Allah Ta’ala said;

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡخَمۡرُ وَٱلۡمَيۡسِرُ وَٱلۡأَنصَابُ وَٱلۡأَزۡلَٰمُ رِجۡسٞ مِّنۡ عَمَلِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ فَٱجۡتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ ٩٠

O you who believe! intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness, the Shaitan’ss work; shun it therefore that you may be successful. (Al-Maa’idah [5]; 90).

Five; pus.

Six; madzi (المذي al-Madhi) and wadi (الودي al-Wadi).

What is meant by madzi (المذي al-Madhi) is a small amount of white liquid, which comes out when a person’s libido is peaking or when one imagines having sex. All we have to do when our madzi comes out is washing and then doing wudlu.

The meaning of wadi (الودي al-Wadi) is water that is cloudy and viscous color that comes out before or after a person urinates or when he carries a heavy burden. Likewise, if after a person piss and then there is sand or gravel that comes out of the genitals (penis or vagina), then the sand or gravel it is unclean.

Seven; meat and dairy carcasses of animals that can not live in water, whether the animal may be eaten or not.

Eight; meat and dairy animals that can not be eaten by a Muslim.

Nine; parts of the human body or animals that are separate or cut off except for hair.

The Unclean Types That Disagree by the Islamic Scholars

One; Dog.

Two; Animal carcasses that can live in water and carcasses of animals that do not bleed.

Three; Dense parts of carcasses, such as horns, bones, teeth, and so forth, which have no blood.

Four; Skin carrion.

Five; The urine of a baby who still feeds her mother and does not eat any of her mother’s milk.

Six; Urine, sweat, and feces of animals whose the meat can be eaten.

Seven; Sperm.

Eight; Pineapples that come out of ulcers.

Nine; Human carcasses and saliva that come out when a person is sleeping.

That is the unclean understanding and division of the outline that must be known by a Muslim. Hopefully by knowing about it we can better keep ourselves from things that can prevent us from performing religious rituals. May we be more tolerant when dealing with matters whose law is still debated by Islamic law experts. Amen.

I think enough for this article about the definition of an-Najaasah (unclean). See you again in the next article

Note;

We can find the discussion above in, Wahbah bin Mushthafah az-Zuhaili, al-Fiqh al-Islaami wa Adillatuhu, vol. 1, p. 149-166.

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